Madrid lost 2-0 to Chelsea at Stamford Bridge on Wednesday to exit the competition 3-1 on aggregate at the semi-final stage.
A record-extending 14th European Cup may be out of the question for Los Blancos, but they have plenty left to play for in the Spanish top flight.
Ramos took to social media on Thursday to issue a rallying cry of sorts ahead of Sunday's home match with outside title contenders Sevilla.
"We're disappointed, yes. But we're not finished," he posted on Instagram. "A history built on victories but Real Madrid has always risen from defeats.
"The league title is still there for us and we're up for it."
Ramos made his first appearance in nearly two months for Madrid after recovering from injury in time to face Chelsea in the second leg.
The Spain international contested more aerial duels (eight) than any player on the field, winning 37.5 percent of those, while only team-mates Toni Kroos (84) and Luka Modric (86) played more successful passes than his 82.
Following the loss in west London and draw in Madrid last week, Los Blancos have faced Chelsea more often without winning than any other opponent in their entire history, drawing twice and losing three times.