The former Chelsea midfielder stated via Instagram on Saturday that he did not feel comfortable continuing with the domestic season while other competitions in Europe were postponed due to the outbreak.
There have been 98 confirmed cases of the virus in Turkey.
"There is more to life than football," he said. "I do not feel comfortable and don't want to play football in this situation.
I would like to thank all the fans for their support. I also want to say thanks to all my teammates, technical crew, medical team and kit men Ayatabe 😉 🚬 for all we’ve achieved this season so far, wish you guys best of luck in winning the league🏆. It was one of the hardest decisions I’ve had to make, but in current situation we all need take care of our families, spend time with them and protect them. #lifefirst #stayhome #family
"Everyone should be home with their families and loved ones in this critical time. Season should be cancelled as the world is facing such turbulent times."
Trabzonspor have now confirmed Mikel's contract, which was due to run until May 31, 2021, had been terminated by mutual consent.
The former Nigeria captain, who retired from international football after the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations, joined Trabzonspor last July after a short spell with Middlesbrough.
Matches in the top flight in Turkey have continued this week despite professional football being postponed across much of Europe.
England, France, Spain, Germany and Italy are among the nations to pause their domestic seasons, while UEFA has put the Champions League and Europa League on hold.
There have been close to 200,000 confirmed cases of coronavirus worldwide and more than 8,000 deaths.