Felix Sanchez's men went into this year's edition having never got past the quarter-finals, reaching the last eight in 1988 and 2011, both times as hosts.
But in the United Arab Emirates, Qatar went all the way despite not being considered among the favourites.
They won all seven of their matches, scoring 19 goals and conceding just one, in the 3-1 final triumph over Japan.
As a result of its success, Qatar become the fifth highest-ranked nation in the AFC behind Iran, Japan, South Korea and Australia.
Beaten finalist Japan has also enjoyed a significant rise, climbing 23 places to 27th.
By contrast, North Korea – which finished bottom of Qatar's Asian Cup group without any points – endured the biggest slide, dropping 12 spots to 121st.
The top 20 remains unchanged, with Belgium, France and Brazil keeping their respective places in first, second and third.