The Selecao are quickly back in action after the disappointment of missing out on Copa America glory on home soil, with games against Chile, Argentina - who defeated Brazil in the final - and Peru coming up next month.
Claudinho receives his opportunity after helping his country secure Olympic gold at Tokyo 2020, including starting in the 2-1 final win over Spain.
The midfielder has made a move to Europe to continue his club career, his signing announced by Zenit not long after the Olympics tournament had concluded.
Raphinha, meanwhile, gets an opportunity after impressing in his debut season with Leeds United. The winger - signed from Rennes - scored six goals in 30 Premier League appearances under the guidance of Marcelo Bielsa.
His tally of nine assists was the most by any player for Leeds, who finished ninth on their return to the top tier, while also completing 45.53 per cent of his 123 attempted dribbles.
"We've been following Raphinha for some time now, since he moved to the Premier League," Tite explained at a media conference.
"We look for information in every way, and he has an accentuated dribbling technique. He has scored a number of important goals too, a decisive player."
Tite has also selected Lucas Verissimo as well as the evergreen Dani Alves, Brazil's 38-year-old captain at the Olympics.
However, Atletico Madrid left-back Renan Lodi, who started the 1-0 Copa America final loss to Argentina, is a surprising omission from the list, while there is also no place for Aston Villa midfielder Douglas Luiz.
"When we say competition at a high level, this is it," said Tite of the tough selection calls he had to make. "They will continue to be followed.
"It's for Douglas to return to his best level, play a lot for his club and come back. Renan Lodi has not been participating in the games, but in training.
"I talked to him, because it's not because of an individual mistake that he doesn't come back, he doesn't have that here. He's a great player."
Brazil have a rematch with rivals Argentina on September 5, two days after a tricky trip to Chile. They round out the run of qualifying fixtures for Qatar 2022 by hosting Peru on September 10.
Brazil squad: Alisson (Liverpool), Ederson (Manchester City), Weverton (Palmeiras); Marquinhos (Paris Saint-Germain), Thiago Silva (Chelsea), Eder Militao (Real Madrid), Lucas Veríssimo (Benfica), Alex Sandro (Juventus), Danilo (Juventus), Daniel Alves (Sao Paulo), Guilherme Arana (Atletico Mineiro); Casemiro (Real Madrid), Fred (Manchester United), Lucas Paqueta (Lyon), Claudinho (Zenit), Bruno Guimaraes (Lyon), Everton Ribeiro (Flamengo), Fabinho (Liverpool); Neymar (Paris Saint-Germain), Gabriel Jesus (Manchester City), Richarlison (Everton), Matheus Cunha (Hertha Berlin), Roberto Firmino (Liverpool), Gabriel Barbosa Flamengo), Raphinha (Leeds United).