Juventus forward Ronaldo picked up the award in person at a ceremony held at the Armani Hotel on Sunday.
The 35-year-old, who has won domestic league titles in Spain, England and Italy and Euro 2016 with Portugal, admitted his pride at receiving the accolade, given to the player judged the best between 2001 and 2020.
"It's a pleasure to win titles," said Ronaldo, a five-time Ballon d'Or winner, at the event.
"It's not easy to be top of the game for so many years. I am really proud, but without a team, great coaches and clubs it is not possible."
Real Madrid were named the club of the century at the ceremony, while Bayern picked up the team award for 2020.
The Manchester City boss was not present at the gala, though he accepted the award via a pre-recorded video message.
Bayern's treble of the Bundesliga, Champions League and DFB-Pokal also saw boss Hansi Flick rewarded as coach of the year.
The Globe Soccer Awards, founded in 2010, acknowledge excellence in football with an annual gala dinner and awards ceremony.