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Having lost to Sale Sharks last time out, the Chiefs made it five wins from six top-flight matches with Stuart Hogg scoring having returned to the team from Six Nations duty with Scotland.
Gloucester made a slow start and was punished when Jacques Vermeulen barged over to help Exeter into a 7-3 half-time lead at Kingsholm.
Four Gareth Steenson penalties stretched the advantage and Hogg showed good pace to dot down for Exeter's second try.
Gloucester responded through Jake Polledri and Louis Rees-Zammit, though the fightback started too late for the hosts.