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The 22-time grand slam champion only expected to be out for six to eight weeks with the injury he suffered at the Australian Open in January but nearly five months on he has not recovered.
Nadal was forced to miss the French Open for the first time in nearly two decades having admitted his team had not been able to find a solution to the issue.
The Spaniard, who turns 37 on 3 June, announced last month that he would be taking a break, potentially for the rest of the season, before what he expects to be farewell tour next year.
Nadal’s representatives revealed the surgical intervention, with the 14-time French Open champion undergoing an arthroscopic investigation on his left psoas muscle in Barcelona.
The results are expected to be announced within 24 hours.