The No.3 seed let slip a one-set lead to lose 3-6 6-2 6-2 to Rybakina in a Centre Court clash between two females contesting their first Major finals.
World No.2 Jabeur had won all 11 matches played on grass in 2022 heading into the final, including six wins en route to the Championship match at the All England Club.
But the Tunisian struggled to build on a bright start, winning just two of her 12 break points and finishing with 17 winners to 29 for Rybakina, who she felt was a deserving winner.
"I want to congratulate Elena and her team – it was a great job and she deserved this and hopefully next time it will be mine," Jabeur said in her on-court interview.
"I wouldn't do this without my team there. They always pushed me to do more so thank you for your support and believing me."
Saturday's contest was the first time in the past 15 such occasions, since 2006, that a player has lost the first set and gone on to win the Wimbledon women's singles final.
While she may have fallen just short of becoming the first Arab and African female to win a grand slam, Jabeur hopes she has inspired children back home.
"Elena stole my title but it's OK," she joked. "I love this tournament so much and I feel really sad, but I'm trying to inspire many generations from my country.
"I hope they are listening. I also want to thank his beautiful crowd for all their support over the two weeks. It's been amazing. I want to wish Eid Mubarak to everyone celebrating."