Juve's head coach was absent for the wins against Parma and Napoli because of a bout of pneumonia but was on the sideline in Florence as his side failed to find a way through.
The visitors lost Douglas Costa and Miralem Pjanic to suspected hamstring and thigh injuries respectively before half-time and never really got going at Stadio Artemio Franchi.
Fiorentina was without a point heading into this match and without a Serie A win since February, but it looked the more likely to score against a lacklustre Juventus, which moved one point clear of Inter Milan and Torino at the summit after playing a game more.
Franck Ribery was handed his full debut for the home side and fired in a low drive 16 minutes in that was saved by Wojciech Szczesny, who survived an earlier scare when his clearance ricocheted off Federico Chiesa and flew over the bar.
Fiorentina keeper Bartlomiej Dragowski kept out efforts from Blaise Matuidi and Pjanic in the space of a minute, but Szczesny was also kept busy at the other end as Dalbert came close with his back-post header.
The hosts continued to look the more likely to score in the early stages of the second half as Dalbert's angled drive was palmed away by Szczesny, moments before Gaetano Castrovilli scuffed wide from a good position.
Chiesa's deflected effort skimmed the crossbar 65 minutes in and Nikola Milenkovic then headed straight at Szczesny from a good position as the match finished scoreless, making it four top-flight away games without a win for Juventus.
Fiorentina visits Atalanta next weekend and Juventus host Hellas Verona, but first it travels to Atletico Madrid for its opening UEFA Champions League group fixture.