The Netherlands centre-back has had persistent problems with his right shoulder after suffering a dislocation last year.
Juve confirmed on Thursday (AEST) that the 21-year-old had stabilisation surgery in Rome and the operation was "a complete success".
Successful surgery for @mdeligt_04.— JuventusFC (#Stron9er 🏆🏆🏆🏆🏆🏆🏆🏆🏆) (@juventusfcen) August 12, 2020
He is not likely to be fully fit to return until November.
There is not yet an official start date for the 2020-2021 Serie A season but the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) has previously stated it hopes the campaign can begin on 1 September.
De Ligt made 39 appearances in all competitions in his first season for Juve since joining from Ajax for an initial €75million fee last year.
Juve won the Scudetto for the ninth time in a row but were beaten by Napoli on penalties in the Coppa Italia final and were knocked out of the Champions League on away goals at the last-16 stage by Lyon.
Head coach Maurizio Sarri was sacked the day after that European exit and replaced by Under-23s boss and former midfielder Andrea Pirlo.