Former Manchester United striker Rooney and ex-Arsenal captain Vieira are the first names included as automatic picks in the class of 2022.
Six more players are set to join them by a public vote over the next fortnight, with the winners from a 25-player field of nominations to be announced in April.
Rooney – United's all-time leading goalscorer and second only to Alan Shearer in the competition's all-time list – won five Premier League trophies, while Vieira skippered the Gunners to three titles.
"It's a huge honour for me to be named in the Premier League Hall of Fame, alongside an incredible group of players who have already been inducted," Derby County boss Rooney said.
"Growing up, I watched the Premier League as far back as I can remember.
"To enter the Hall of Fame is very special for me personally and I'm grateful to be recognised."
Vieira, now back in the Premier League as manager of Crystal Palace, echoed Rooney's sentiments, adding: "Being inducted into the Premier League Hall of Fame is a fantastic achievement.
I was very honoured and proud when I heard that I am being inducted into the @premierleague Hall of Fame. Playing in the Premier League was a true privilege. I really enjoyed that part of my career, and I would like to thank all my teammates who helped make it so special. pic.twitter.com/8MAduP5fUB— Patrick Vieira (@OfficialVieira) March 23, 2022
"To be there with the best players in the Premier League, the best league in the world, is bigger than what I was ever thinking about.
"To have my name around those players makes me proud and makes me realise how good I was."
PremierThe Premier League of Hall Fame is in its second year of inception, having begun last year with an initial slate of eight honorees.
Alan Shearer, Thierry Henry, Eric Cantona, Roy Keane, Frank Lampard, Dennis Bergkamp, Steven Gerrard and David Beckham were inducted previously as the class of 2021.