Jules Kounde gave Sevilla a golden opportunity to snatch the last-gasp winner after he was fouled by Osasuna's Manu Sanchez in the area, only for goalkeeper Sergio Herrera to deny Rakitic from the resulting spot-kick.
The result leaves second-placed Sevilla three points behind Real Madrid, which hosts Granada on Monday (AEDT), albeit without talisman Karim Benzema as it suffers a dip in form of late.
On-loan Manchester United forward Anthony Martial debuted for Sevilla but failed to make an impression as Osasuna worked hard to restrict goal-scoring opportunities for the visitors.
Martial arrived on the heels of Jesus Corona's transfer from Porto three weeks ago, and it was the latter who looked the more likely to trouble Osasuna's defence.
But he too failed to fire a shot on target as Sevilla ended the match with just four attempts on the Osasuna goal.
Sevilla's failure to get a result means it sits three points adrift of Madrid, which could stretch that gap to six with a victory over Granada.