The 26-year-old midfielder made his first start for City since suffering a torn right anterior cruciate knee ligament last December.
The Germany international turned in an impressive display but was unable to continue after a 54th-minute challenge from Claudio Yacob that saw West Brom's eventual goalscorer booked.
Fears that Gundogan had suffered another severe setback were quelled by boss Pep Guardiola, who told reporters after watching Leroy Sane complete a match-winning brace that the injury was "not serious".
And City confirmed as much with a statement on their official website on Friday (AEST).
"The German midfielder underwent tests this morning after being taken off during the victory at the Hawthorns and the club's medical staff found no significant damage," the statement read.
"The affected knee is different to the one which kept Ilkay out for nine months after his last setback suffered against Watford in December.
"It is too early at this stage to give an exact time frame on his absence but he is expected to be back on the training field in the coming days."
Gundogan was ruled out of UEFA Euro 2016 after suffering a dislocated kneecap, while a back complaint prevented him from playing a part in Germany's triumphant 2014 FIFA World Cup campaign.
City is joint top of the Premier League alongside rival Manchester United and hosts bottom club Crystal Palace on Sunday.