Since arriving at Flamengo on loan from Inter Milan in January, 23-year-old striker Gabigol has scored 30 goals in 40 appearances in all competitions.
He has been rewarded with a first call-up since the Copa America Centenario in 2016 by head coach Tite and is joined by club team-mate Rodrigo Caio.
The news will come as a blow for Flamengo boss Jorge Jesus. His side sits top of the Campeonato Brasileiro at the halfway point but the league does not stop for the international calendar.
Athletico Paranaense goalkeeper Santos won the Copa do Brasil on Thursday (AEST) and has been selected for international duty for the first time in his career, a fate shared by Gremio midfielder Matheus Henrique and Atletico Madrid left-back Renan Lodi.
Gabriel Jesus returns to the fold after sitting out the 2-2 draw against Colombia and 1-0 loss to Peru in September because of suspension. Neymar, Richarlison, Everton and Roberto Firmino have also been named in a Selecao squad boasting a wealth of attacking options.
Brazil's 17-match unbeaten run came to an end when it went down to Peru and it will hope to get back to winning ways against Senegal in Singapore on 11 October (AEST).
Ederson (Manchester City), Santos (Athletico Paranaense), Weverton (Palmeiras); Alex Sandro (Juventus), Dani Alves (Sao Paulo), Danilo (Juventus), Eder Militao (Real Madrid), Marquinhos (Paris Saint-Germain), Renan Lodi (Atletico Madrid), Rodrigo Caio (Flamengo), Thiago Silva (Paris Saint-Germain); Arthur (Barcelona), Casemiro (Real Madrid), Fabinho (Liverpool), Lucas Paqueta (AC Milan), Matheus Henrique (Gremio), Philippe Coutinho (Bayern Munich); Everton (Gremio), Gabriel Barbosa (Flamengo), Gabriel Jesus (Manchester City), Neymar (Paris Saint-Germain), Richarlison (Everton), Roberto Firmino (Liverpool).