Nuno Espirito Santo's Wolves clinched their third league win of the campaign when Jimenez's second half strike deflected in off Leeds midfielder Kalvin Phillips.
The Mexico striker's third goal of the season made it back to back wins for Wolves after they beat Fulham before the international break.
Leeds has now gone two games without a win as it was beaten for the first time in the league since its narrow opening weekend defeat at champion Liverpool.
Marcelo Bielsa's team dominated the first period, pinning Wolves in their own half, but had nothing to show for their dominance as the visitor's defence held firm.
Leeds striker Patrick Bamford's early header was ruled out for offside and the host had a penalty appeal turned down after Helder Costa went down under Joao Moutinho's challenge.
Wolves almost snatched the lead against the run of play when Daniel Podence's close-range shot was saved by Illan Meslier.
Romain Saiss thought he had given Wolves a 54th-minute lead with a superb finish from the edge of the area, but VAR ruled Podence was in an offside position.
Jimenez settled a hard-fought clash in the 70th minute when he cut in from the right flank and darted across the edge of the area before hitting a shot that smacked off Phillips' head and flashed past the wrong-footed Meslier.