Van Marwijk is the successor to Alberto Zaccheroni, which led UAE to the semi-finals of the Asian Cup it hosted this year.
Dutch boss Van Marwijk coached Australia at the 2018 World Cup and led Netherlands to the final of the 2010 tournament.
His first game in charge will be on Thursday against Saudi Arabia, whom he guided to last year's finals in Russia before leaving his post.
Prior to moving into international management, Van Marwijk coached Feyenoord twice either side of a spell with Borussia Dortmund.
The 66-year-old also had a short period in charge of Bundesliga side Hamburg between September 2013 and February 2014.