Ramos was included in Robert Moreno's XI for a UEFA Euro 2020 qualifier away to Norway on Sunday (AEDT), with qualification in its sights.
But Norway ignored the fairytale script, and Joshua King scored a 94th-minute penalty to earn his side a 1-1 draw, making Spain wait a little longer to seal its place at the finals.
When Ramos equalled Casillas's record last month, he indicated he has a landmark appearance in mind before following former centre-back partner Gerard Pique into international retirement.
"Records are there to be broken," the Real Madrid defender, who made his Spain debut in 2005, said.
"I hope that this momentum, enthusiasm and ambition always accompanies me and that I reach 200 games, which is the objective. You have to make it difficult."
Ramos admitted the draw in Norway had somewhat dampened his mood, despite his record-breaking achievement.
"I would have changed the record for the victory," he said after the match.
"It is a pride to be the Spaniard who has worn this shirt [the most] times ... I still hope to wear it much more.
"It was a shame we drew [against Norway]. Norway took advantage in the final minutes, and in one play they tied us.
"I'm sad, because we would have liked to achieve the qualification."
Ramos is reportedly keen to play for Spain at the Olympic Games in Tokyo next year in a bid to add a gold medal to the FIFA World Cup and European championship titles he has previously won with La Roja.
"It is early to talk about the Olympic Games," he said. "But anyone who had the chance and was called to play in the Games would not say no.
"It is something you cannot refuse. There is a lot of the season left and it is a very nice idea."
Asked about the matter this week, Spain coach Robert Moreno said: "I haven't talked about the Olympic Games with him. That desire defines him as a footballer.
"He has one more motivation to add to his career. It is difficult, when you have won everything, to stay motivated."