Bristol City and Swansea City, which started the day third and second respectively, played out a 0-0 draw, while Charlton Athletic suffered a second straight defeat, going down 2-0 at Wigan Athletic.
Preston North End, Queens Park Rangers and Nottingham Forest all gained ground towards the top of the standings with victories, while Blackburn Rovers, Cardiff City and Hull City were also among the winners.
Sheffield Wednesday drew 1-1 with Fulham and Stoke City moved off the bottom of the table after a goalless encounter at Brentford.
FRUSTRATION FOR LEEDS
Other results meant Leeds stayed top even though it suffered frustration against Derby, the team with which it was embroiled in last season's 'spy-gate' controversy.
Marcelo Bielsa's men led through Max Lowe's own goal, but Mateusz Klich fired wide with a penalty that would have sealed victory 20 minutes from time, while Patrick Bamford, who had won the spot-kick, squandered multiple opportunities.
Chris Martin then punished the hosts with a stoppage-time equaliser, finishing off a slick move completely against the run of play to score his first Derby goal since November 2017 and give his side its fifth draw in eight games.
CHARLTON FALLING AWAY
Charlton lost a second straight game without scoring, as defender Chey Dunkley scored a double for Wigan to send Lee Bowyer's men down to seventh.
Dunkley netted in each half to follow up his goal at Hull last week, having failed to net in 39 Wigan appearances last season. The result ended a six-match winless league run for the hosts.
Swansea is still level on points with Leeds at the top after its draw at Ashton Gate. The Welsh side had Jake Bidwell sent off in the last-minute for a lunge on Niclas Eliasson.
CHASING PACK GAIN GROUND
Sean Maguire scored for a second straight week to give Preston a 1-0 win at Birmingham City, Alex Neil's men moving up to third, just a point behind the leader as a result.
Nahki Wells's double, his second coming courtesy of a huge goalkeeping blunder from Bartosz Bialkowski, gave QPR a 2-1 win away to Millwall, ensuring Mark Warburton's men sit level with Preston.
Forest is one point further back after Ben Watson's first goal for the club ensured Barnsley was beaten 1-0 at The City Ground. It was the home side's only shot on target.
NUHU DENIES FULHAM
Fulham remains in mid-table after Atdhe Nuhiu headed in a Sheffield Wednesday equaliser three minutes into stoppage-time, cancelling out Tom Cairney's first-half opener.
Elsewhere, Ashley Fletcher's second-minute own goal gave Cardiff a narrow 1-0 win over Middlesbrough, Hull scored three times in the final 27 minutes to thump Luton Town 3-0 at Kenilworth Road and Blackburn Rovers won 2-1 away to Reading.
Sergi Canos had an effort cleared off the line as Brentford were frustrated by struggling Stoke.