Furlong and Henderson missed Ireland's 37-27 victory over Wales at the Aviva Stadium with hamstring problems sustained against Italy.
Prop Furlong was replaced after just three minutes of that encounter, with Henderson forced off at half-time in Dublin.
Ireland has a five-point lead at the top of the Six Nations table thanks to England's defeat to Scotland, and the return of the forward duo will lift its hopes of securing the title.
Both men will train fully this week, according to the Irish Rugby Football Union, while Rob Herring also returns after struggling with an elbow problem.
Only Niall Scannell and Andrew Conway have been ruled out of the Scotland clash, with Leinster's Barry Daly replacing the latter in Schmidt's squad.