It was confirmed last week that Stefan Ruthenbeck's contract with Cologne would not be extended, with the club bottom of the Bundesliga and seemingly destined for relegation, but it has moved early to install a new boss for the coming campaign.
Anfang arrives from Holstein Kiel, who he has guided to third place in the 2. Bundesliga.
"I am from Cologne," he told the club's official website. "No-one has to explain to me what it means to work with these fans for this great traditional club, regardless of the league."
Cologne chief executive Armin Veh said: "He is a coach who can give a team a recognisable style and he has already proved that in Kiel.
"Particularly in the second half of the season, he has shown that he can work successfully even under difficult conditions."