Bamford has been given the nod by Gareth Southgate for the games against Hungary, Andorra and Poland.
The 27-year-old scored 17 goals in 38 games for Leeds on their return to the Premier League last season.
Liverpool full-back Trent Alexander-Arnold and Burnley goalkeeper Nick Pope were also named in a 25-man squad after missing Euro 2020 due to injury, while Manchester United forward Jesse Lingard has been recalled.
There is no place for United's in-form teenage forward Mason Greenwood or Chelsea left-back Ben Chilwell.
England boss Southgate said "This is a fresh cycle. We were never looking to make a lot of changes. Ben White has had a situation with COVID [the Arsenal defender tested positive], Ben Chilwell hasn't played a game since the Champions League final.
"Those two are ruled out. [Phil] Foden and [Marcus] Rashford injured. We were very pleased with Ollie Watkins, now it's an opportunity for Patrick. His progress at Leeds has been excellent. We've worked with him at Under-21, it's a fabulous moment for him and his family."
The Three Lions, beaten by Italy in the Euro 2020 final at Wembley last month, face Hungary at the Puskas Arena on September 2 before taking on Andorra at Wembley three days later and travel to Poland's Stadion Narodowy on September 8.
England are top of Group I with three wins out of three, leading Hungary by two points.
England squad: Sam Johnstone (West Brom), Jordan Pickford (Everton), Nick Pope (Burnley); Trent Alexander-Arnold (Liverpool), Conor Coady (Wolves), Reece James (Chelsea), Harry Maguire (Manchester United), Tyrone Mings (Aston Villa), Luke Shaw (Manchester United), John Stones (Manchester City), Kieran Trippier (Atletico Madrid), Kyle Walker (Manchester City), Jude Bellingham (Borussia Dortmund), Jordan Henderson (Liverpool), Jesse Lingard (Manchester United), Mason Mount (Chelsea), Kalvin Phillips (Leeds United), Declan Rice (West Ham United); Patrick Bamford (Leeds United), Dominic Calvert-Lewin (Everton), Jack Grealish (Manchester City), Harry Kane (Tottenham), Bukayo Saka (Arsenal), Jadon Sancho (Manchester United), Raheem Sterling (Manchester City).