Zinedine Zidane's side offered scant consistent threat at Coliseum Alfonso Perez, as the hosts battled to a point that keeps them in control of their own destiny in the race for the Champions League places.
It could have been even better for Getafe, who have only won one of their past 19 league games against their neighbours, had Keylor Navas not produced an excellent double save in the second half to keep the scores level.
The in-form Karim Benzema dragged a shot wide inside the first minute, but with Madrid struggling to settle and Getafe out to disrupt their rhythm, it was a first half-hour of little quality.
Navas, keeping his place ahead of Thibaut Courtois, parried a free-kick from Mauro Arambarri before David Soria claimed Benzema's low effort from Gareth Bale's cross.
Soria was busier in the opening minutes of the second half than in the whole of the first, denying Casemiro and Dani Carvajal from distance and blocking at the feet of Bale.
The excellent Brahim Diaz was beginning to find lots of space as Madrid threatened a little more, but Navas was forced into fine stops to deny Jorge Molina and Jaime Mata from inside the box to preserve a point for the visitors.
What does it mean? Madrid already on holiday as Getafe's fight continues
Sevilla's 5-0 thrashing of Rayo Vallecano means they are now level on points with Getafe after 34 games, but behind on head-to-head, meaning Jose Bordalas' side still just hold the edge in the race for the top four.
Madrid mathematically cannot win the title and are now six points behind second-place Atletico Madrid, and must simply be keen to put this season behind them.
Making only his second LaLiga start for Madrid, Brahim was his side's most creative and committed attacking player. Zidane is reportedly happy to loan him out next season; perhaps he might now have a rethink.
Valverde out of sync
Madrid's Federico Valverde lost the ball too often in midfield and was very fortunate not to be booked for a second time for a succession of fouls.
Madrid head to bottom-of-the-table Rayo on Sunday, while Getafe travel to Real Sociedad.