The 26-year-old was brought on as a substitute for the final 14 minutes of Juve's 1-1 draw with Lazio on Sunday but is deemed unfit to team up with his national side.
He missed Argentina's opening two qualifiers in October - victories over Ecuador and Bolivia - and will now play no part against Paraguay and Peru over the next fortnight.
Argentina confirmed in a statement on Sunday that Dybala is "presenting general genitourinary symptoms which require rest and evaluations".
#SelecciónMayor El delantero de la @juventusfc, @PauDybala_JR, queda desafectado de la convocatoria por presentar síntomas generales genitourinarios siendo necesario reposo deportivo y evaluaciones. pic.twitter.com/jMrRhsmfjK— Selección Argentina 🇦🇷 (@Argentina) November 8, 2020
Dybala has made six appearances for Juventus in all competitions this season and scored his only goal in last week's 4-1 Champions League win over Ferencvaros.
Ajax defender Lisandro Lopez has been added to Lionel Scaloni's 25-man squad, which also includes the likes of Lionel Messi and Angel Di Maria.