Spurs ended City's European adventure in midweek despite losing 4-3 in a controversial and thrilling encounter at Etihad Stadium, but they were unable to dent the champion's title defence as Pep Guardiola's men clinched a measure of revenge.
An entertaining first period saw just the one goal despite several opportunities at both ends, with Foden, who was making only his second top-flight start, opening his Premier League account in the fifth minute, although City did lose Kevin De Bruyne to injury.
Spurs were aggrieved to not be awarded a second-half penalty and that ultimately proved crucial as City held on to the slender victory, taking it back above Liverpool to the Premier League's summit ahead of a trip to Manchester United next week.
Although Spurs started by going close through Son Heung-min, City took an early lead as it did in midweek, Foden nodding in after Sergio Aguero headed a Bernardo Silva delivery back across goal.
Spurs responded well as Christian Eriksen tested Ederson and Aymeric Laporte had to make a last-ditch tackle to deny Son, but City looked purposeful in attack and should have won a penalty when Jan Vertonghen sent Silva tumbling in the 20th minute.
City continued to grow as the first half progressed, but lost De Bruyne to what appeared to be a knee injury just before the break, handing Spurs a boost.
Proceedings were tighter after the interval, though City could count itself lucky to not concede a spot-kick, Kyle Walker seeming to handle the ball in the box after a Dele Alli flick.
Raheem Sterling should have wrapped things up with 19 minutes to go when directing Leroy Sane's cross towards goal, but Paulo Gazzaniga somehow kept it out with his right foot.
That ushered in an anxious end for City, with Ederson forced to thwart Lucas Moura, but the hosts dug deep to secure a crucial victory.
Most people identified two matches in City's run-in that could see it slip-up; Tottenham at home and away to United. It is now past the first hurdle relatively unscathed. It is seemingly only bitter rival United that stands between City and a second successive Premier League triumph.