Modric has pipped Messi and Ronaldo to the Ballon d'Or after helping Real Madrid to its third consecutive UEFA Champions League trophy, and leading Croatia to and unlikely FIFA World Cup final.
Meanwhile Matildas star Sam Kerr finished fifth in the race for the inaugural women's Ballon d'Or, which went to Norway and Lyon star Ada Hegerberg.
Former AC Milan midfielder Kaka was the last player other than Messi or Ronaldo to win the coveted prize in 2007.
Ballon d'Or top 10:
10) Harry Kane - Tottenham Hotspur
9) Kevin de Bruyne - Manchester City
8) Eden Hazard - Chelsea
7) Raphael Varane - Real Madrid
6) Mohamed Salah - Liverpool
5) Lionel Messi - Barcelona
4) Kylian Mbappe - Paris Saint-Germain
3) Antoinne Griezmann - Atletico Madrid
2) Cristiano Ronaldo - Juventus
1) Luka Modric - Real Madrid