Jabeur, the only top 15 seed to make the last-eight in the women's tournament, battled back to see off 66th-ranked Bouzkova of the Czech Republic.
The Tunisian was broken twice as she lost the first set but lost only two games after that to power to a 3-6, 6-1, 6-1 win.
Jabeur described semi-final opponent Maria as her "barbecue buddy".
"It's going to be tough to play her, she is a great friend," she said.
"I am really happy she is in a semi-final -- look at her now, she is in a semi-final after having two babies. It is an amazing story."
Maria, 34, who saved two match points in the previous round against Jelena Ostapenko, made her Grand Slam debut in 2007 and had never progressed beyond the third round at a major before this year's Wimbledon.
"I have goosebumps everywhere," said the world number 103, who returned from maternity leave just under a year ago.
"My two little girls, it's a dream to live this with my family, to live this with my two girls. Almost one year ago I gave birth, it's crazy."
The remaining quarter-finals take place on Wednesday.