Robert Prosinecki quit as Bosnia-Herzegovina coach after Sunday's 4-2 defeat to Armenia left them with little hope of reaching Euro 2020.
Former Real Madrid and Barcelona midfielder Prosinecki was hired in January 2018 and enjoyed a fine start to his tenure, but Sunday's result leaves them in a poor position.
"I talked to everyone and no longer [will I be coach], I resign," he said after the match. "When I arrived, I believed we would make it to the Euros.
"We have not succeeded in this and my successor will have time to prepare the team for the Nations League. I am no longer the coach."
Prosinecki presided over Bosnia's 2018-19 Nations League campaign, seeing them top their group and earn promotion to league A for 2020-21.
He also matched Bosnia's record unbeaten run of nine matches in November last year and only failed to reach 10 by virtue of a late 1-0 defeat to Spain.
But things began to fall apart early on in Euro 2020 qualifying, as they spurned a two-goal lead to draw 2-2 at home to Greece in match two, following that up with consecutive defeats to Finland and Italy.
They returned to winning ways with a 5-0 thrashing of Liechtenstein – Prosinecki's biggest win at the helm – on Thursday, but they underwhelmed away to a Henrikh Mkhitaryan-inspired Armenia three days later.
The Roma winger scored twice and got an assist, as Armenia netted two in the final 13 minutes to move above Bosnia in Group J.
The result leaves Bosnia with seven points after six matches, already five adrift of Finland, who have played a game fewer.