The 26-year-old, who is one of only 30 Russian athletes allowed to compete in Doha under the authorised neutral athlete banner, took gold ahead of Ukraine's Yaroslava Mahuchikh.
Lasitskene, the 2015 and 2017 champion, claimed victory after clearing a height of 2.04m to win on countback ahead of Mahuchikh.
Vashti Cunningham of the United States took bronze.
The win marked another career milestone for Lasitskene, who has dominated international high-jumping in recent years.
Lasitskene was barred from the 2016 Olympics after Russia was banned from the games over the country's doping scandal.
But Lasitskene has since been allowed to compete as a neutral athlete, a status handed to athletes who are deemed to be above suspicion by the International Association of Athletics Federations