Jabeur will continue to play in the doubles, where she will pair with American legend Serena Williams, who has not played a competitive match since a first-round defeat at Wimbledon last year.
The news of the Tunisian's withdrawal from the singles tournament comes on the same day that she was elevated to world number three, after her victory at the Berlin Open on Sunday.
She beat Belinda Bencic in the final after her Swiss opponent retired with an ankle injury.
"I feel like I need to be smart about this decision," Jabeur told reporters about her choice not to play singles at Eastbourne.
Jabeur and Williams will face off against the unseeded duo Marie Bouzkova and Sara Sorribes Tormo in the first round on Tuesday.