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Bertens revealed in a media conference on Wednesday that a combination of the COVID-19 pandemic and an ongoing Achilles injury prompted her to start a new chapter in her life.
A winner of 10 WTA Tour singles and 20 doubles titles, Bertens reached a career-high fourth in the rankings two years ago.
Bertens, now ranked 20th in the world, embarked on her best grand slam run at the 2016 French Open, reaching the semi-finals at Roland Garros.
She was knocked out in the first round of the Paris major Polona Hercog by this time around and made the decision to quit this year after bowing out in the French capital.