Making her fourth appearance in a WTA Tour-level final, Bouzkova ended her wait for a maiden title with a convincing 6-0 6-3 success on Monday (AEST).
Bouzkova, ranked 66th in the world heading into her home tournament, wrapped up the first set in under 30 minutes.
Potapova hit back with two breaks in the second, but an overhit forehand down the line from the Russian handed Bouzkova the trophy in her second final of 2022.
"I just want to thank everyone, it's just a dream for me to win my first title here at home, I couldn't be happier," said Bouzkova, the fifth Czech to win on home soil since the event debuted on the WTA Tour in 2015, after Karolina Pliskova, Lucie Safarova, Petra Kvitova and Barbora Krejcikova.
"I felt your support, even those who aren't here, it's a dream come true, playing in front of a home crowd. My first winner's speech, I'm sorry it's not the best!"
Bouzkova, 24, has now won both of her matches against Potapova, after defeating the 21-year-old in qualifying for the Miami Open earlier this year.