Fabinho, used at centre-back by Jurgen Klopp with Virgil van Dijk and Joel Matip sidelined, suffered a hamstring injury in Liverpool's 2-0 Champions League win over Midtjylland.
The 27 year-old will miss Brazil's qualifiers against Venezuela and Uruguay next month.
Everton midfielder Allan, who has played nine games for Brazil, has replaced Fabinho in Brazil's squad.
"The technical team of the Brazilian team called for midfielder Allan, from Everton, England, for the next two rounds of the 2022 World Cup qualifiers," a statement from the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) read.
"The player was linked to the place of Liverpool's Fabinho, who was recalled due to muscle damage to his right thigh."
Brazil is top in CONMEBOL qualifying after winning its opening two matches ahead of meeting Venezuela on 13 November.