Gareth Southgate's side has been drawn in Group I, also alongside Hungary, Albania, Andorra and San Marino.
World champion France is in Group D with Ukraine, Finland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kazakhstan.
The Netherlands headline a tricky Group G, which also includes Turkey, Norway, Montenegro, Latvia and Gibraltar.
Croatia, the beaten finalist two years ago, is in an intriguing Group H with Slovakia, Russia, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta.
Spain will face Sweden, Greece, Georgia and Kosovo in Group B, with Portugal in Group A along with Serbia, the Republic of Ireland, Luxembourg and Azerbaijan.
Belgium, the world's top-ranked side, face Euro 2016 quarter-final opponents Wales, and Germany will meet Romania and Iceland.
The matches will take place from March to November next year, with the 10 group winners advancing automatically to the finals in Qatar and 10 runners-up heading into the play-offs.
World Cup 2022 UEFA qualifying draw:
Republic of Ireland