Requiring a strong response after a 4-2 defeat to Turkey in its Group G opener, Netherlands turned in a much-improved display on Sunday (AEDT).
With Steven Berghuis's first international goal, a brilliant strike from 20 yards out, having put it ahead, Netherlands ensured victory thanks to Luuk de Jong's 69th-minute header.
The win relieves some of the mounting pressure on De Boer – taking charge of a Netherlands match in front of fans for the first time – lifting his side up to third.
Buoyed by a vociferous socially distanced crowd at Johan Cruijff ArenA, Netherlands would have taken a sixth-minute lead through Davy Klaassen if not for Igors Tarasovs's exceptional goalline clearance.
With Janis Ikaunieks's blocked effort all that Latvia managed in the opening exchanges, Klaassen had another opportunity in the 27th minute, only for his header to come back off the crossbar.
The pressure finally told five minutes later, Klaassen finding Berghuis, who created space on the edge of the area and curled a stunning effort into the top-left corner.
Somehow, Netherlands failed to double its lead prior to the break, Memphis Depay curling inches wide before Dde Jong headed against the bar from point-blank range.
More profligacy came after after the restart, Klaassen then De Jong both missing chances from a goalmouth scramble.
Vladimirs Kamess looked set to punish the duo moments later, only for his path to goal to be blocked by Owen Wijndal's perfectly timed challenge.
Any danger of a Latvia comeback was ended with a little over 20 minutes remaining, however, as De Jong atoned for his earlier misses with a powerful header from Depay's corner to get Netherlands up and running.