Despite leaving Robert Lewandowski on the bench for the entire UEFA Nations League Group A4 match, Poland put itself in a commanding position through goals from Matty Cash and Piotr Zielinski.
However, Davy Klaassen got one back two minutes later and within five Netherlands was level thanks to Denzel Dumfries.
A handball by Cash gifted Depay a chance to score the winner from the penalty spot, but the Barcelona attacker hit the upright and the spoils were shared.
Poland took the lead when Cash picked up the ball on the right and drilled his first international goal into the bottom-left corner with a fine finish.
Netherlands responded well but was two behind when Zielinski was teed up for a simple finish by Przemyslaw Frankowski following an excellent ball in behind by Krzysztof Piatek – though VAR (video assistant referee) was required to overturn an offside decision in the build-up.
Klaassen quickly reduced the arrears when he volleyed Daley Blind's cross home and Louis van Gaal's men were soon level as Dumfries' deflected effort was permitted by VAR after the offside flag initially went up.
Cash handled the ball after Lukasz Skorupski kept Depay at bay and referee Halil Umut Meler pointed to the spot having reviewed footage of the incident.
Depay was unable to take advantage of the opportunity and he also had a header tipped over by Skorupski as Netherlands ended up missing out on the win.