Djokovic held all four slams in June 2016 when he won the French Open for the first time, but subsequent struggles for form and fitness saw him tumble down the rankings and he began this event as the world number 21.
However, having looked back to his brilliant best as he overcame great rival Rafael Nadal in a spectacular semi-final played across two days, the Serbian was too good for his opponent on, triumphing 6-2 6-2 7-6 (7-3) in two hours and 18 minutes.
Eighth seed Anderson had come from two sets down to stun defending champion Roger Federer in the quarter-finals, before winning a titanic last-four tie with John Isner 26-24 in the fifth after more than six and a half hours on Centre Court.
Those herculean efforts initially looked to have caught up with the South African, who was playing his second grand slam final having lost to Nadal in last year's US Open decider, and he called for the trainer even before the opening set was brought to a swift end.
After receiving treatment on his right arm, Anderson was roared on by a crowd eager to see a contest and gradually raised his game, but Djokovic held firm impressively to save five set points in the third set and dash any hopes of a fightback.
The champion of 2011, 2014 and 2015 can now celebrate another Wimbledon success, which is sure to be all the sweeter given his recent struggles. Only Federer (20), Nadal (17) and Pete Sampras (14) have won more grand slam singles titles among male players, with Djokovic having moved clear of Roy Emerson courtesy of his 13th victory.