The Russian announced that she would not be participating in this year's tournament, which begins on 26 May.
Sharapova, 32, has not played since pulling out of a match against compatriot Daria Kasatkina in the last 16 of the St Petersburg Open in January, undergoing surgery the next month.
"Withdrawing from the French Open today," she said via her Instagram page.
"Sometimes the right decisions aren't always the easiest ones. In better news, I have returned to the practice court and slowly building the strength back in my shoulder.
"I'll really miss you Paris, until next year."
Sharapova is a two-time French Open champion, making the tournament her most successful grand slam.
A winner in 2012 and 2014, she made the quarter-finals last year.