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Rangers were on course for a deserved victory that would have breathed life into the title race, but Ange Postecoglou's visitors nabbed a crucial leveller right near the end, with fellow Australian Aaron Mooy playing a key role after coming off the bench.
Daizen Maeda had initially given Celtic an early lead inside five minutes. A mistake from Alfredo Morelos gifted the Japanes the ball, and he made no mistake in a one-on-one with Alan McGregor, striking the ball under the advancing frame of the Rangers goalkeeper.
Celtic continued to dominate for large parts of the first half, but a howler from Joe Hart galvanised the hosts. The former England goalkeeper was too casual with a clearance, and Morelos out him under severe pressure before the ball was eventually cleared to safety.
However, that moment of madness allowed Rangers to establish some dominance, although they remained a goal down at the break.
But within seven minutes of the restart, the hosts were ahead. Ryan Kent scored the first, a delightful curling shot from the edge of the box, and skipper James Tavernier put Rangers in the lead with a bomb of a penalty that flew past Hart before he could even see it, the perfect time for the skipper to score his 100th career goal.
Rangers created several chances to add gloss to the scoreline, but Celtic centre back Cameron Carter-Vivkers twice denied them with absolutely heroic blocks inside the box.
Those interventions would prove crucial as Rangers failed to deal with a ball into the box from Mooy in the dying embers of the game. With a vital victory on the line for the hosts, Kyogo Furuhashi was on hand to fire a composed finish into the roof of the net in amongst all the chaos, rescuing a point for Celtic that maintains what looks to be an already unassiable lead in the league.