The Bianconeri looked to have all but sealed the Scudetto when two penalties helped them preserve a nine-point lead at the top with a 2-2 draw against Atalanta.
Atalanta cut the lead down to six points with a 6-2 thumping of Brescia and Juve could be only four points ahead by the time it faces Lazio on Tuesday (AEST) after an engrossing contest saw the spoils shared.
Danilo and Gonzalo Higuain put Juve 2-0 up inside 12 minutes before Filip Djuricic pulled one back. Domenico Berardi levelled matters six minutes into the second half and then teed up Francesco Caputo to make it 3-2, only for Alex Sandro to secure a point for Maurizio Sarri's men.
Former Manchester City defender Danilo bent home from Miralem Pjanic's low corner delivery to the edge of the area and the Bosnia-Herzegovina international's sublime through-ball led to the second goal as Higuain – preferred to Paulo Dybala – converted confidently on the half-volley.
Wojciech Szczesny produced a pair of stunning saves to first deny Mert Muldur and then Berardi, but he could do nothing to prevent Djuricic from finding the top-right corner with a fine first-time finish after more good work from Muldur.
Szczesny did well to hold a drive from Berardi as Sassuolo continued to press for an equaliser, with Cristiano Ronaldo seeing a gilt-edged chance to restore Juve's two-goal lead in first-half stoppage time deflected over.
That advantage was eradicated in spectacular fashion by Berardi as he left Szczesny no chance with a superb free-kick from the edge of the area.
And a remarkable turnaround was completed three minutes later when Berardi's ball across the face of goal found Caputo to tap in at the far post.
Adrien Rabiot headed wide and Ronaldo shot straight at Consigli but Alex Sandro made no mistake in converting from Rodrigo Bentancur's corner to make it three apiece.
Consigli thwarted Ronaldo from close range and at the other Szczesny produced heroics to deny Hamed Junior Traore, with Alex Sandro clearing Jeremie Boga's goal-bound follow-up in a fittingly frantic finale.