Juve claimed its first trophy under boss Andrea Pirlo with a Supercoppa Italiana victory over Napoli in midweek and got its title bid back on track at Allianz Stadium on Monday (AEDT).
Arthur's deflected first-half strike and a Weston McKennie header moved the Turin giant seven points adrift of leader Milan with a game in hand.
Juve, beaten by Inter last weekend, was not at its best but although Bologna had its chances, it is now without a win over the Bianconeri in 19 attempts.
Pirlo's side took the lead in fortuitous fashion after 15 minutes, when Arthur's long-range drive struck Jerdy Schouten and gave wrongfooted goalkeeper Lukasz Skorupski no chance.
Skorupski produced a fine double save to prevent Juve from increasing their advantage, using his feet to deny Federico Bernardeschi from close range after palming away a strike from Cristiano Ronaldo.
Juan Cuadrado fired wastefully off target before Roberto Soriano went close to equalising late in the first half with a shot from inside the penalty area that flashed wide.
A fine reflex save from Wojciech Szczesny prevented Cuadrado's header from gifting Bologna an own goal early in the second half and the Juve keeper once again had to be alert keep out Riccardo Orsolini's left-footed strike.
Bologna was made to pay for its profligacy when an unmarked McKennie nodded in Cuadrado's corner 19 minutes from time.
Skorupski denied McKennie a quickfire double with a great reaction save before preventing Alvaro Morata from adding a third goal at his near post.
The busy Skorupski beat away Adrien Rabiot's left-footed shot and saved a powerful Ronaldo strike as Juve saw out a comfortable win.