The 21-year-old suffered a heart attack, according to another of his former clubs, Vicenza.
Bouasse arrived in Italy from Cameroon with the hope of establishing a football career, and earned an opportunity at Roma.
Joining the club in 2016, the midfielder played for the 'Primavera' youth side at Roma, at times training with first-team stars such as Francesco Totti, also having a loan spell at Vicenza.
Roma said on Twitter: "The club is desperately saddened to learn of the untimely death of former Primavera player, Joseph Bouasse Perfection.
"The thoughts of everyone at #ASRoma are with all those closest to him."
Senegalese player Keba Coly, a friend from their early days together with Roma, wrote on Instagram: "Rest in peace brother."
Vicenza said: "A sad news has shaken the red and white environment. In the night, Joseph Bouasse Perfection, at the age of 21, passed away due to a cardiac arrest.
"The Cameroonian midfielder, born in 1998, arrived in January 2017 on loan from Roma, he wore the red and white number 30 shirt, taking the field in Serie B on one occasion.
"A boy who in his life had managed to overcome various adversities, leaves in Vicenza, in the people who knew him, the memory of a smiling and cheerful person.
"Vicenza share in the pain of Joseph's loss and wish to express deepest condolences to his loved ones."