Barzagli, 37, is yet to make a Serie A appearance for the champion this season after Leonardo Bonucci's return from AC Milan bolstered Massimiliano Allegri's options at the back.
Veteran centre-back Barzagli sustained the injury in training but initial tests have ruled out a serious tear for the former Italy international.
"The defender will undergo further examinations in the coming days," Juventus said in a brief medical update.
Juve hosts second-placed Sassuolo on Monday (AEST) seeking to extend a solid start to the 2018-2019 season, with Allegri's men top of the table on maximum points after three games.
However, record signing Cristiano Ronaldo is yet to open his account for his new club after joining from Real Madrid in a shock deal worth €112million.