Jesus ended a five-match scoreless run in the Premier League with City's first two goals in a 4-1 rout of Burnley at Turf Moor.
Aguero has missed the past two league matches with a thigh injury sustained in a 2-1 win over Chelsea, and is also set to be out for the Manchester derby.
However, Guardiola is adamant none of City's players or coaching staff had any concerns over Jesus' form.
"Of course it's not easy [replacing Aguero] but the team doesn't have doubts about him," Guardiola said. "As a striker sometimes you score, sometimes not. We need the quality of the players up front to make the difference.
"Of course we need him. The strikers are there to score goals and we need him. His effort, commitment, which is always there, but of course, strikers like him and Sergio live for goals, it was important.
"We played a good game. Controlled them, didn't concede much, except one action in the first half and a goal in the last minutes. We played really well. The quality of our players made the difference."
Jesus got things started for City with a sensational strike midway through the first half, before the Brazil forward prodded home from Bernardo Silva's cross shortly after the break.
Rodri – who was impeccable in central midfield – slammed in a brilliant third, before substitute Riyad Mahrez helped himself to a 50th Premier League goal late on, although there was still time for Robbie Brady to snatch a consolation for Burnley.
Guardiola again stuck with Fernandinho in defence, though City's boss has no plans to change that tactic any time soon.
"We are open to accept [media] opinions, but we know the quality of the players much better than all of you, and know what the team needs in this moment," Guardiola said.
"Fernandinho for his quality, his personality and his character is an important player and I like him to play [in defence]. I said it when we lost games and I say it when we win. When we win it's a perfect decision, when we lose it's a bad decision.
"[Rodri] was incredible, in his position, offensive, defensive, so clever. He has much better, the picture of our game, a picture of the players where they are.
"Fantastic player, so young, and he's adapted perfectly to this country. He's got it. He's a guy who wants to learn, listen, every training session he's ready and that's why always we can count on him without a problem."
City's win takes them – temporarily at least – above Leicester City and into second place, though they are still eight points shy of Liverpool, who welcome struggling Merseyside rivals Everton to Anfield on Wednesday.
"We are far away [from Liverpool] so we cannot think about that," Guardiola said when asked if City had demonstrated the quality needed to stay in the title race.
"Our level was so good in most games. I don't have the feeling we played bad in any single game. Sometimes you need something more and there are situations we cannot control. In general the level of the team I am more than satisfied."