The recalled striker bookended the scoring at Carrow Road, lighting the fuse for a pulsating contest with a third-minute opener and later deciding the match with his 68th-minute finish.
Todd Cantwell's response 156 seconds after Abraham's first added to a theme of defensive instability which Mason Mount and Teemu Pukki capitalised upon in a four-goal first half.
Chelsea addressed its insecurities after the break and Lampard's faith in youth was well and truly rewarded by the end as his side avoided a fourth match without victory.
Abraham replaced Olivier Giroud in Chelsea's starting XI and quickly gained the goal he craved, meeting Cesar Azpilicueta's cross with a measured half-volley.
But the lead lasted less than three minutes.
Emiliano Buendia weaved away from markers and connected with Pukki, who squared for Cantwell to convert at close range.
Abraham had celebrated his opener with Lampard and there was further satisfaction for the Chelsea boss when midfielder Mount sliced through a suspect defence to score for the second straight match.
But the visitors were no less vulnerable, Pukki's intelligent finish from a narrow angle punishing Andreas Christensen's failure to hold the line 15 minutes before half-time.
The Blues began to assert greater authority after the interval and might have been rewarded had Emerson Palmieri shot either side of Tim Krul.
It was ultimately left to an academy product to provide all three points, though, as Abraham escaped on a counter-attack and held his nerve when confronted by two defenders.
Ben Godfrey gave the 21-year-old too much space for the match-winning strike but almost made amends with a header that crashed against the crossbar, Norwich going agonisingly close to a fourth point of the campaign.
Norwich visits fourth-tier Crawley Town in the second round of the Carabao Cup on Wednesday (AEST) ahead of a weekend trip to London to face West Ham United.
Chelsea's next game is against another promoted side, Sheffield United, at Stamford Bridge in a week's time.