Artur's 59th-minute goal was enough for Columbus to win the Eastern Conference final at MAPFRE Stadium, moving into the MLS Cup for the first time since 2015.
It marked the first time Columbus have won an MLS Cup playoffs match over New England, and it came on their eighth attempt.
Crew had the better of the chances throughout and struck just before the hour mark, with Gyasi Zardes having been denied by New England goalkeeper Matt Turner just moments earlier.
Lucas Zelarayan's cross from the left found Jonathan Mensah at the back post and the defender touched a pass into the path of Artur, who found the bottom corner with a first-time finish.
All four of Artur's MLS goals have been scored at MAPFRE Stadium, including three in his past six home appearances.
Zelarayan smashed an effort against the post from 25 yards in the 62nd minute, but Artur's goal proved to be enough to crown Columbus Eastern Conference champion.
Columbus has won 13 of its past 14 home MLS matches and will host either Seattle Sounders or Minnesota United in the decider on 12 December.
Crew boss Caleb Porter became the fifth coach in MLS history to win both the Eastern and Western Conference championship, joining Bruce Arena, Dominic Kinnear, Jason Kreis and Sigi Schmid.