Coutinho suffered a hamstring injury in Sunday's (AEDT) defeat to Real Madrid despite completing the full game at Camp Nou.
Barca said a timescale for the former Liverpool man's return "depends on how the injury evolves", but Brazil's doctors have also now assessed the player.
Doctor Rodrigo Lasmar believes "there is not enough time for the recovery of the player for his participation in the next two rounds of [2022 World Cup] qualifiers", a statement read.
Brazil have therefore called up Lyon's Lucas Paqueta in his place for the fixtures against Venezuela and Uruguay on November 13 and 17.
Should Coutinho be available for Barca again following the break, he would make his return against Atletico Madrid almost a month on from the initial issue.
Coutinho is set to be joined in missing Brazil's qualifiers by Liverpool's Fabinho.
The midfielder, who has been playing in defence for the Reds since Virgil van Dijk's injury, sustained a hamstring problem in Tuesday's Champions League win over Midtjylland.
Liverpool was waiting for a scan on the injury on Thursday, but Jurgen Klopp suggested Fabinho's absence would not represent a major blow for Brazil, as he has earned just 12 caps for his country and started on five occasions.
"I'm not sure if Tite's too worried because he plays him never, so he will probably now not sit on the bench for the next [two] international games," Klopp said.