The defender was issued a suspension and a fine of £70,000 on December 23 after England's Football Association found him guilty of breaking rules related to betting.
Trippier was charged with seven alleged breaches of rule E8(1)(b), four of which were proven.
The regulation states: "Where a participant provides to any other person any information relating to football which the participant has obtained by virtue of his or her position within the game and which is not publicly available at that time, the participant shall be in breach of this rule where any of that information is used by that other person for, or in relation to, betting."
Trippier denied the charges and his ban was put on hold while FIFA's Appeal Committee considered his case.
However, in a statement on Monday, football's governing body said: "The FIFA Appeal Committee has dismissed the appeal lodged by the club Atletico Madrid in a case concerning the player Kieran Trippier.
"As a consequence, the decision of the FIFA Disciplinary Committee passed on December 23 2020 is confirmed, extending sanctions imposed on the player by the English FA to have worldwide effect."
Trippier will now be unavailable for Diego Simeone's side until February 28.
The England international will miss LaLiga matches against Eibar, Valencia, Cadiz, Celta Vigo, Granada and Levante, but he will be back in time for the derby with Real Madrid, which is scheduled for March 7.
Trippier will also sit out the first leg of the Champions League last-16 tie with Chelsea at the Wanda Metropolitano on February 23.