The LaLiga giant is seeking to reduce its wage bill amid a "serious financial problem" due to the coronavirus pandemic.
Barca says COVID-19 has caused a reduction in revenues of more than €300million for the 2020-2021 season, with the club requiring a salary adjustment of €191m.
But talks between Barca and representatives of the players – and a group of corporate workers – ended on Wednesday without an agreement.
"Today, November 11, after several days of intense meetings, and the negotiation was exhausted, the parties have ended the consultation period without reaching an agreement," part of a statement from the club read.
The statement said parties had given themselves a deadline of November 23 to consider whether a deal can be struck.
Reports have suggested Barca wants to cut the wages of its top earners, including Lionel Messi, by 30 per cent.
Barca is believed to have one of the highest wage bills in Europe, and the likes of Luis Suarez, Ivan Rakitic and Arturo Vidal left the club in the close season.
Ronald Koeman's side is eighth in LaLiga, nine points adrift of leaders Real Sociedad but having played two fewer games.