The Brazil international was booked four minutes after being brought off the bench in Thursday's (AEST) eventful 2-2 semi-final draw with Montpellier, which PSG won 6-5 on penalties.
Neymar, who sat out two matches after being sent off against Lille last month, has triggered a one-game suspension linked to his punishment for that previous offence.
The league's disciplinary committee met and it has been confirmed Neymar will not be available for the showpiece against Monaco at Stade de France.
Reacting to the news on his Instagram page, Neymar posted: "I would like to understand the reasoning of the guy who takes care of bookings in France!
"That deserves applause. What a mess."
Neymar's outburst could land him in further trouble with disciplinary chiefs, having also hit out at referee Jeremie Pignard following the win against Montpellier.
"I play five minutes, I commit a foul and he gives me a yellow without even thinking," Neymar posted on social media earlier this week.
"Thank you for suspending me for the final. I think it was personal."
Mauricio Pochettino's PSG may be relying on next week's Coupe de France final to salvage its 2020-2021 season.
It trails Ligue 1 leader Lille by three points with two games to go – the first of those is at home to Reims on Monday (AEST) – and was knocked out of the UEFA Champions League by Manchester City at the semi-final stage.
Neymar penned a new four-year deal with PSG last week and has featured 29 times for the French giant in all competitions this season, scoring 16 goals.