Van Persie's last outing for the Oranje came in October 2015, when he scored his 50th international goal in a 3-2 defeat to Czech Republic.
Babel's time out of the side goes back much further to a 3-0 friendly loss against Germany in November 2011.
The Besiktas winger expressed his frustration at being left out for Netherlands' end-of-season friendlies against Morocco and Cote d'Ivoire but has won the nod from head coach Dick Advocaat this time around.
There is no place for Virgil van Dijk – the centre-back currently out of first-team action at Southampton after handing in a transfer request.
Netherlands sits third in Group A, three points behind both France and leader Sweden.
It travels to the Stade de France on 1 September (AEST) before hosting Bulgaria – a point behind them in fourth at present - three days later.
A 2-0 loss in Bulgaria back in March led to Danny Blind being sacked as Netherlands boss.
Netherlands squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Jasper Cillessen (Barcelona), Maarten Stekelenburg (Everton), Jeroen Zoet (PSV)
Defenders: Joel Veltman (Ajax), Kenny Tete (Lyon), Matthijs de Ligt (Ajax), Stefan de Vrij (Lazio), Karim Rekik (Hertha Berlin), Wesley Hoedt (Lazio), Bruno Martins Indi (Stoke City), Daley Blind (Manchester United), Nathan Ake (Bournemouth),
Midfielders: Donny van de Beek (Ajax), Davy Propper (Brighton & Hove Albion), Marco van Ginkel (PSV), Davy Klaasen (Everton), Kevin Strootman (Roma) Wesley Sneijder (Nice), Jens Toornstra (Feyenoord), Tonny Vilhena (Feyenoord), Georginio Wijnaldum (Liverpool).
Forwards: Vincent Janssen (Tottenham), Bas Dost (Sporting CP), Jurgen Locadia (PSV), Memphis Depay (Lyon), Arjen Robben (Bayern Munich), Jeremain Lens (Besiktas), Robin van Persie (Fenerbahce), Ryan Babel (Besiktas), Quincy Promes (Spartak Moscow).